1. In the 1970s, Exxon’s M.S. Whittingham used titanium sulfide as the cathode material and metallic lithium as the anode material to make the first lithium battery.
2. In 1980, J. Goodenough discovered that lithium cobalt oxide can be used as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries.
3. In 1982, R.R. Agarwal and J.R. Selman of the Illinois Institute of Technology discovered that lithium ions have the characteristic of intercalating graphite. This process is fast and reversible. At the same time, the safety hazards of lithium batteries made of metal lithium have attracted much attention. Therefore, people have tried to make rechargeable batteries using the characteristics of lithium ions embedded in graphite. The first available lithium ion graphite electrode was successfully trial-produced by Bell Laboratories.
4. In 1983, M. Thackeray, J. Goodenough and others discovered that manganese spinel is an excellent cathode material, with low price, stability and excellent conductivity and lithium conductivity. Its decomposition temperature is high, and its oxidation is much lower than that of lithium cobalt oxide. Even if short circuit or overcharge occurs, it can avoid the danger of combustion and explosion.
5. In 1989, A. Manthiram and J. Goodenough found that a positive electrode with a polymer anion would produce a higher voltage.
6. In 1991, Sony released the first commercial lithium-ion battery. Subsequently, lithium-ion batteries revolutionized the face of consumer electronics.
7. In 1996, Padhi and Goodenough discovered that phosphates with an olivine structure, such as lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4), are superior to traditional cathode materials, and therefore have become the current mainstream cathode materials.
With the widespread use of digital products such as mobile phones, notebook computers and other products, lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in such products with excellent performance, and are gradually developing into other product applications. In 1998, Tianjin Power Research Institute began commercial production of lithium-ion batteries. Traditionally, people refer to lithium-ion batteries as lithium batteries, but these two types of batteries are different. Lithium-ion batteries have become mainstream.